Tag Archives: coal

Help us take on Australia’s dirtiest bank

Come along to help hold ANZ accountable for their support of the coal industry. There are two locations, each with two separate shifts for this action. Register for one of the shifts with Ian at iandrmack -at- optusnet.com.au or alternatively, just show up!
Where: ANZ Branch 219 Smith St, Fitzroy
Times: 9am to 11am and 11am to 1pm


Where: ANZ Branch 309 Bourke St Mall, City
Times: 10.30am to 12.30pm and 12.30 to 2.30pm
A new report commissioned by Greenpeace, Pillars of Pollution: How Australia’s Big Four Banks Are Propping Up Pollution, reveals the extent to which Australia’s big four banks are investing in polluting coal power – and they’re using your money to do it. For every $1 ANZ invested in renewable energy over the last five years, it invested $6.40 in coal.

These banks spend huge amounts of money and time trying to sell themselves as environmentally responsible. But if they continue heavily investing in polluting power, it doesn’t matter how many trees they plant – the damage caused by their coal investments is already too great.
Local Melbourne climate action groups YCAN and inc3 are organising an action as part of the Greenpeace Dirty Banks campaign to pressure the big four to stop funding new coal fired power stations. We would love to invite and have you join us in this action.
The action will mainly involve leafleting outside ANZ bank branches, holding banners, etc.
This is the same strategy that was used to make it hard for Gunn’s and their pulp mill to get funding and holding financial institutions to account for the greenwash they are building into their branding. Tasmania as we know recently has had their breakthrough agreement with the loggers.
The facebook event page is here.

Protesters call for the coal industry to foot the bill for flood clean-up

A group of concerned citizens protested outside the BHP office in Melbourne today, and presented the coal industry with a giant invoice for part of the cost of the unprecedented floods in Victoria and Queensland.

Spokesperson for the group Pablo Brait said, ”we’re presenting this invoice to the entire coal industry on behalf of the Australian taxpayer, charging them for part of the flood clean-up and the increased insurance costs all Australians will have to pay due to the impacts of global warming.”

“Scientists have been telling us for 25 years that our greenhouse gas emissions are increasing the incidence of extreme weather events such as floods, bushfires and drought. We are seeing this here in Australia and all over the world.”

“BHP is Australia’s largest coal miner and coal is our biggest source of carbon pollution. If we are going to avoid ever worsening disasters like severe bushfires and floods, then we need to urgently shift from antiquated and polluting coal energy to clean renewable energy sources.”

According to both surface and satellite measurements the year 2010 was the equal hottest and the wettest on record worldwide. The last decade was the hottest decade ever recorded. A report released by the Queensland Government in November 2010, the Inland Flood Study concluded that as the Earth warms, flood risk in QLD grows too.

“Our political leaders express their concern over the victims of the floods, and yet they continue to support the expansion of the coal power and coal export industries. This disgusting hypocrisy condemns more lives in future disasters and shows contempt for the victims of the floods.”

“How many more people need to lose their lives and homes before the state and federal governments stand up to the coal industry?”

“How much economic damage must the Australian economy sustain before the fossil fuel sector stops campaigning against action on climate change?”

“Shifting out of fossil fuels will save lives and help shield our economy from further shocks.” Mr Brait concluded.

ANZ Bank – the dirtiest amongst the dirty

Tell ANZ to clean up its act!

Burning coal is endangering our health, polluting the air and water, and making global warming worse.
And who is providing the dirty money to finance dirty coal power in Australia? It’s the retail bank that claims it ‘lives in your world‘ – ANZ.
ANZ is officially the dirtiest bank in Australia.
Despite announcing its plan to be carbon neutral by the end of 2009, ANZ is the largest financer of dirty coal power in Australia. Over the past five years, ANZ has poured nearly 1.6 billion dollars into coal power stations, coal mines and coal ports. At a time when we need to be cutting pollution and investing in renewable energy, ANZ is using our money to expand Australia’s coal industry.
Click here to go to the Greenpeace site that allows you to send an email to ANZ’s CEO Mike Smith. You can also send him a Christmas card by downloading the image below and sending it to ANZGroupCEO@anz.com and gerard.brown@anz.com.au.
We also encourage all ANZ customers, and those of the other major banks to switch to companies not investing in coal or other fossil fuels such as Bendigo Bank or MECU Credit Union.

Brumby’s Quarry Vision

Originally published in Arena Magazine.
John Brumby stands looking upwards into the distance, squinting and baring his nice straight teeth. Behind him is a giant octagonal configuration of mirrors reflecting the sun’s rays against a backdrop of perfect blue sky. They call this greenie porn: pictures of big shiny solutions for the energy dilemmas of our time, like this one taken at a large-scale solar power plant.
Cashing in on the appeal in this advertisement in an inner-Melbourne local paper we read: ‘John Brumby and Labor – Leading Australia on Climate Change’. There are some dot points about making Victoria the ‘Solar State’, about spending $650 million on climate change and renewable energy programs; $10 billion on unspecified new investment and jobs; a target for emissions cuts of 20 per cent by 2020 on 2000 levels; and a staged closure of Hazelwood power station. Interesting for a state government that has overseen steady increases in greenhouse gas emissions over the eleven years it has held power.
There is no questioning the motivation here. Following the 2010 federal election (in which Julia Gillard’s strategy on climate policy was to duck and deflect), the large swing to the Greens across the country, and especially in Victoria, resulted in that party gaining the balance of power in the Senate and claiming the lower house seat of Melbourne. Facing an election of his own on 27 November, with four seats at risk of being lost to the Greens, Brumby has made no secret that he has a different strategy in mind. On 26 July, as Abbott and Gillard’s campaigns were already in full swing, he released his Climate Change White Paper.
This long-awaited statement of Victoria’s climate policy agenda looked fresh: first, because it was in radical contrast with the federal climate change policy vacuum; second, because it actually did reflect a new approach from the Brumby government. Previous drafts focussing almost exclusively on ‘adaptation’ had had to be pulped as carbon prices went on and off the national agenda, and Brumby finally decided emissions reductions could not be left to higher forces.
Unfortunately, Brumby’s apparent climate policy stance has very little to do with the substance of his policies. Indeed, there is plenty of evidence of politics-as-usual, which continues to fall distressingly short of the task of altering our progress along a path to ecological disaster. It boils down to the question of how we might assess leadership on climate change. If it were a question of relativity we might have reason to congratulate the Brumby government for taking some steps forward. The problem is that they are baby steps, and can be explained more easily by a fear of losing votes to the Greens rather than any real comprehension of climate change science.
The capacity of politics-as-usual to live up to the task of avoiding dangerous climate change has been questioned before and found wanting. In their 2008 assessment of the dramatic, widening gap between the response that climate science demands and the response actually given, David Spratt and Philip Sutton in Climate Code Red pointed to the short-term, adversarial and incremental mode of politics conventional in Western nations like ours. This mode is ‘steeped in a culture of compromise that is fearful of deep, quick change—which suggests it is incapable of managing the transition [to a safe-climate economy] at the necessary speed’. Nothing has changed, except that is, the amount of evidence in support of this statement.
Nowhere is this more evident than in the Australian approach to coal, with politics-as-usual meaning a refusal to deviate from the ‘quarry vision’ so aptly described by Guy Pearse in his 2009 Quarterly Essay, Quarry Vision: Coal, Climate Change and the End of the Resources Boom. This is an ingrained mentality—shared by the vast majority of politicians, the business sector and many citizens: that Australia is a nation dependent both for domestic electricity and export income on digging up, shipping out and burning coal.
While the imperative to break with this mentality could not be stronger, for reasons ranging from the moral to the pragmatic, there is no indication that this is occurring where it matters most. Witness QR National proudly boasting their coal freight activities and asking that Australians invest in the idea that this will continue indefinitely. Witness federal Energy Minister Martin Ferguson feigning ignorance when presented with the prospect of the need to draw up transition plans for coal workers. Meanwhile ABARE proudly reports that Australian coal exports reached record levels in the December quarter 2009 and projects that exports will rise by 88 per cent between 2004/2005 and 2029/2030.
But what of Premier Brumby and his latest advertisements? Should we be grateful that he did not pose next to a big pile of coal and some smokestacks? Unfortunately there is nothing to suggest that Brumby’s own quarry vision is wavering, beyond his apparent recognition that it may not be the best thing to emphasise in an election context.
A key element of Brumby’s climate policy platform is a commitment to shutting down a quarter of production at Hazelwood—Australia’s most polluting coal-fired power station—over the next four years. Considering it was due to close in 2009 but had its life extended in 2005 by then Labor Premier Steve Bracks for an extra few decades, this is hardly a position worth celebrating. It should have gone completely off-line by now. With Victoria’s potential for baseload solar thermal power it is possible to replace all of Hazelwood’s generating capacity with renewable energy within the same four year timeframe. However as it stands under Brumby’s plan, a quarter of Hazelwood’s current output will probably be replaced with coal power from another source.
Even worse than this, and certainly not a lead item on Brumby’s climate policy agenda, is the proposal currently waiting for approval from EPA Victoria to build a brand new 600 megawatt coal-fired power station near Morwell in Victoria’s Latrobe Valley. The HRL Dual Gas proposal has the support of both the Brumby Government who have committed $50 million and the Commonwealth Government ($100 million). They claim that the use of synthetic gas (from the drying and gasification of brown coal) and natural gas at the new plant will ensure the emissions intensity is lower than any other coal plants operating in Victoria. Again, this is nothing to get excited about. While the HRL Dual Gas plant would indeed help to bring Victoria into line with other coal plants in Australia by producing emissions slightly below the level of a typical black coal power station, the emissions intensity of the plant would still be almost double the OECD average. One wonders why the Brumby Government would make their own target to reduce 20% of emissions by 2020 that much harder by committing to new coal power development that will increase emissions and lock in reliance on coal for years to come.
Further evidence that the Brumby Government has expansion rather than curtailment in mind for Victoria’s coal industry emerged in September 2009. At that time Victorian Energy Minister Peter Batchelor was reported to be championing a proposal by Australian-based company Exergen, to mine, dry and export 12 million tonnes of brown coal annually to India.  Confidential cabinet documents obtained the next month by The Age showed that this was only the tip of the iceberg with the Brumby Government considering a competitive tender process to sell off billions of tonnes of Latrobe Valley brown coal reserves to companies looking to open up new coal export markets overseas. Premier Brumby himself said that given Australia exports oil, gas, black coal and uranium, he saw no reason why Victoria should not export brown coal. Yet, by December 2009 the export deals had been shelved, seemingly because the run in the media and backlash from environment groups had ignited fears of broader voter disapproval. However this has not been ruled out, and one should ask whether the plan to expand coal exports might emerge again after a Labor election victory.
Premier Brumby may not be all he is cracking himself up to be on climate change, but how much does it matter to Victorian voters? The gamble is that green message will beat the substance, which is probably a safe bet in this age of marketing supremacy. The strategy is clever enough to sway people without the time or inclination to consider the details.
Brumby’s approach is likely to mean that NGOs, community groups and individuals concerned about climate change will have to work harder than they did during the recent federal election campaign where it was easy to show that Gillard had nothing to offer on climate issues. The task is to build public understanding so that Brumby and others in positions of power can be judged on just how far their policies are really intended to secure a safe climate future.
Taegen Edwards is a member of Yarra Climate Action Now, an independent community group based in the inner Melbourne suburbs of the City of Yarra. She works as a Research Fellow at the University of Melbourne.

YCAN opposes new coal-fired power station

The Brumby and Gillard Governments are supporting a new coal-fired power station in the Latrobe Valley, each promising $50 million and $100 million of taxpayer money to support it respectively. Building any new fossil fuel infrastructure is insanity when faced with the climate crisis it is causing, and the viable alternatives we have, like baseload solar. We put forward this short submission to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) which is currently considering whether to allow the new coal plant to go ahead.
Submission to the EPA – Dual Gas Demonstration Project
EPA Works Approval Application

Submission from Yarra Climate Action Now (YCAN)
YCAN is a climate action group based in the inner-suburban City of Yarra. We write to voice our strong opposition to the proposed building of the HRL-Dual Gas power station.
The project is completely at odds with the stated intent of the Victorian government as outlined in a number of recent documents, including the Victorian Climate Change White Paper.
On a per capita basis, Victoria produces four times the world average amount of greenhouse gases per annum. The proposed power station will barely meet the Victorian governments limit of 0.8 tonne of CO2e per megawatt hour for new coal fired power plants — a limit which is lax by world standards as the average across the developed world is 0.45 tonne per megawatt hour. The 600MW plant will make it highly unlikely, if not impossible, for Victoria to meet the new 20% emissions reduction limit by the end of this decade.
Few jobs will be created during the construction process (an estimated 350 jobs), and the project will only create 40 ongoing jobs, very few when compared with the number of jobs that would be created from a similar sized renewable energy development.
Not only will this project be producing huge amounts of greenhouse gases, it will also be wasting our limited water resources, requiring around 2GL of water a year. The Latrobe River and Gippsland Lakes are already very stressed and in a deteriorating condition. It would be extremely unwise to allow further allocations of water for energy production.
In contrast, a similar-sized renewable energy development would produce no greenhouse gas emissions, consume a negligible amount of water and create more jobs.
YCAN strongly opposes this project and urges the EPA to refuse the application from HRL – Dual Gas.
Yours sincerely,
Yarra Climate Action Now

There will be a rally this Monday 18 October, 1pm at 1 Treasury Place off Spring St against the new coal proposal.
We also hope to see everyone at the rally to replace ALL of Hazelwood power station on November 6, 1pm, State Library, corner Swanston and Latrobe streets, City.

Gillard: moving Australia backwards on climate

Yesterday Julia Gillard announced some of the Labor Party’s climate policies.

Debate amongst the YCAN team has centred on whether these are the worst policies ever, or the second worst.

The Labor Party cannot even pretend to care about climate change now. These policies will see Australia’s emissions continue to rise rapidly while the impacts of climate change keep worsening.

In summary, the policy announcements are:

1. A green light for new coal-fired power stations and existing ones to keep polluting indefinitely

Twelve new coal-fired power stations on the drawing board around Australia have been given the go-ahead. Any new plants beyond these will be subject to “emissions standards”, which will only block brown coal developments, but not black coal.

Further, all new coal plants (the phrase “new coal plants” shouldn’t exist in and of itself as we should not be building any) will need to be “carbon capture and storage ready” – something that is completely meaningless.

Existing polluting infrastructure, such as Hazelwood Power Station remain untouched.

2. More inaction and delay

The “citizens assembly”, due to report in over 12 months is just an excuse for inaction, when urgent action is desperately needed. Community consensus on climate action has existed for years, and scientific consensus has existed well before that. We want action, not more talk!

3. Money from solar energy to go to buying petrol cars

Money will be taken away from the solar infrastructure program to fund rebates for car owners to purchase a new car if their car is older than 1995.

For further information see the Vote Climate website.

And for further analysis, Bernard Keane from Crikey has expressed it well in his piece:

Citizen Gillard abandons basic leadership on climate change

It’s hard to describe just how truly wretched Labor’s new climate change policy is. It makes the CPRS, its dog of an emissions trading scheme, look like a model of best practice. It is a spectacular failure of leadership.

Julia Gillard’s “citizens’ assembly” has effectively outsourced responsibility for climate policy to “ordinary Australians”, on whose “skills, capacity, decency and plain common sense” Gillard will rely to tell her about the community consensus on climate change. In effect it institutionalises what is already apparent — this is a Government controlled by focus group reactions.

Labor has been playing politics with climate change for three years and it hasn’t stopped. But whereas for most of that time it used climate change to damage the Coalition, now it is having to defend itself against the issue. It will only be with the political cover afforded by this nonsensical Assembly that the Government will take any action on a carbon price.

Rarely has so much goodwill and political capital been wasted on such an important issue.

The consensus the Government insists it needs the protection of before acting already exists. It’s not just in the opinion polls, which show time and time again that the majority of voters want action on climate change and supported the Government’s CPRS. In 2007, let’s not forget, both sides of politics told Australians they were going to introduce an ETS. The 2007 election endorsed a community consensus on the need for action.

Instead, in 2010, neither party will commit to any sort of carbon price mechanism for at least three years. Instead, they’re offering excuses as to why they don’t want to take action. We’ve done anything but move forward on climate action.

Gillard’s interim actions are little better. The new emissions standard she proposes won’t even apply to four coal-fired power stations being built or brought back on line currently. They may not apply to two more, the massive Mt Piper and Bayswater projects in NSW, which will together add 4% to national CO2-equivalent emissions when they come on line. Holding the baseline for the CPRS at 2008 levels won’t give electricity generators any more investment certainty when it remains unclear whether there will ever be an emissions trading scheme in Australia. Nor does it change the simple fact that State Governments continue to drive Australia into a coal-fired future.

Labor’s craven pandering to key outer-suburban electorates in its population and asylum seeker policies was bad enough. But abdicating executive responsibility for action on climate change is a new low in cynical politics, beyond the depths even reached by NSW Labor. Politicians are elected to lead. Deferring every controversial issue back to the electorate is a clumsy variant of leadership by polling and focus groups.

So blatant is Labor’s refusal to lead that it raises serious questions about its fitness for government. The only problem is that the alternative is an economically-illiterate party whose leader doesn’t believe in climate change at all, but who insists on wasting $3b on the most expensive possible means of addressing it.

What a choice, two major parties incapable of leadership and unfit to govern.

Gillard Government already disappoints on climate

Unfortunately, the Gillard Prime Ministership has gotten off to a very bad start.

Within 24 hours of her swearing in, the Federal Government was signing a deal to export brown coal – the world’s dirtiest, most greenhouse gas intensive fuel – to Vietnam.

The greenwash was coming in thick and fast from the Trade Minister Simon Crean, who said the technology used in this export deal would clean up the brown coal – when in fact it will make it as polluting as black coal – still a disaster in terms of emissions produced.

So far, Victoria has avoided the coal export curse, with all its associated health and environment impacts, which affects NSW and QLD. This deal is a step in the wrong direction. Australia is the world’s biggest coal exporter and this makes us one of the biggest pushers of the fossil fuel drug which is causing global warming.

We must stop exporting coal as well as burning it within our own shores. Not only will this help avoid catastrophic climate change, a transition to renewable energy will create more jobs than it destroys and in the medium and long term provide a massive boost to the Australian economy.

Luckily this grubby deal did not go unnoticed. A group of people gathered at the Southbank hotel where the deal was signed, after being given only a few hours notice. The media coverage can be see here – The Age, ABC

It is crucial that the Australian public cuts through the spin coming from the Labor Party and judges Julia Gillard on her policies.

The children of the Khapi Community in Bolivia, where glacier retreat has robbed the community of its water and its livelihood.

An urgent message from Bolivia

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Steve and Naomi from Rising Tide reporting from Bolivia

Some countries around the world are feeling the effects of climate change more than others, yet most of us are unaware of these struggles. Australia is doing relatively well coping with the current effects of climate change for now, at least compared to some low lying island nations or communities reliant on the melt waters from glaciers.

This was made amazingly clear at the Bolivian hosted World People’s Conference on Climate Change and the Rights of Mother Earth, April 2010. Throughout the conference, people spoke about losing human rights due to water shortages. Glacier-fed drinking water disappearing as global warming melts the snowy peaks away.

We learned that one of the glaciers in the Andes mountain chain, Chacaltaya was once a popular ski field, but has completely disappeared, years earlier than scientists predicted. And according to these same scientists, in the next 20-30 years most of the glaciers right across the Andes will go, affecting access to water for 70 million people.

One woman was very direct when talking us. “What can we do to stop this?

We considered Australia’s contribution to these climate problems. In Australia, we mine and burn coal as our number one energy source. We have some of the world’s largest per person carbon emissions due to our dirty energy supply. Even this seems insignificant compared to the coal we mine and export, releasing more CO2 than all of our domestic emissions combined.

Australia is the world’s biggest coal exporter, and state and federal governments are planning to expand this deadly industry, building roads and railways so we can send the coal to the ports faster, and pushing for new mines to be opened. That is, unless we stop them.

After a little scratching of our heads we turned back to the woman, “We could paint a banner with a glacier-fed community that reads, Please Stop Mining Coal, Climate Change is Taking Our Water”.

There was no going back now. This woman’s question set us on a path high into the Andes Mountains in search of an appropriate community. We found ourselves in the meeting room of local NGO Aqua Sustentable (Water Sustainability) explaining our odd sounding idea to strangers we hoped could help us in our quest to share this message with Australians back home.

Our enthusiasm caught on and days later we took off further up the mountains with their team. Within three hours we arrived at the Khapi community, passing seemingly endless fields of fresh growing food along the way. We learned the Khapi community is made up of about 40 families, all working together to grow their food, live in mud brick homes and use the glacier-fed water supply that literally flows right past their houses.

Upon arriving at the community, we were greeted by 30 smiling faces at the primary school. To begin, we gave a short presentation about Australia (and our world famous kangaroos) the coal industry, renewable alternatives and our climate change work back home. We spoke in English, another woman translated into Spanish, and then another young man spoke in the local Aymara language. Luckily, the photographs projected up onto the wall told most of the story.

It wasn’t a fun story to tell. Photos from near our home in the Hunter Valley NSW, showed open cut coal mining. Tiny spots in the dark hole were revealed to be enormous trucks hauling tones upon tones of coal. Huge smoke stacks spewing dark clouds of pollution. The more we told the story, the more the reality of what is going on really hit us.

The children seemed glued to the slides, including the photos of Australian banners. When we explained our banner idea they all cheered with excitement. They now had a chance to paint their own.

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The kids loved it. We were very impressed with the way they concentrated to make the banner the best it could be. They were obviously very proud of their hard work, parading the banner around the community above their heads, laughing and carrying on.

They soon reached a special lookout where we could see the towering glacier in all its glory. Illimani.

After the laughter and joy we shared with the kids, it was sobering to hear the words of community leader Severino Cortez Bilbao. “Recently we’ve started thinking about our Illimani. Before it was pure white, right down to there. In the last 5 or 6 years it’s suffered badly, it’s all black. Some people don’t think about it, but we are thinking about it, we’re thinking about our children, those who will come after, because we’re already getting on, we may not see what happens later on. If Illimani dries up, there’ll be no water and no life, no life.

This experience turned out to be far more than a banner painting exercise. It was life changing. We knew a little of warming events in mountainous regions of the world, but it was something else to visit a community where their glacier and water supply is disappearing before their eyes.

The challenge to support climate affected communities and to encourage action against climate change and coal mining is a large one, but the smiles of those children with the most to loose will stick with us for a while yet.

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Replace Hazelwood campaign

What dinosaur lives in the Latrobe Valley and suffers from terrible gas?

Hazelwood brown coal power station near Morwell in the Latrobe Valley is Australia’s most polluting power station and one of the dirtiest in the developed world.

Hazelwood produces a whopping 15% of Victoria’s greenhouse gas emissions, and is a major consumer of our precious and scarce water (27 billion litres per year).

It was due to be closed down in 2009, but in 2005, in a shameful decision, the State Labor Government extended its life out past 2030.

If the Australian economy is to begin the transition to zero emissions, and thereby do our bit in avoiding the worsening droughts, fires, floods and sea level rises that will come from runaway climate change, then we need to start by replacing Hazelwood with clean renewable energy by 2012.

A number of groups have begun a campaign, calling on all parties to commit to replacing Hazelwood before the Victorian State Election in November this year. We have already held rallies and started doorknocking in inner Melbourne. This is a key election test – do the candidates in your seat support replacing Hazelwood with clean energy?

We need your help to make this happen!

What can I do?

If you have any questions send us an email on yarracan@gmail.com

Climate Summit targets the replacement of Hazelwood Power Station

The Climate Action Summit took place in Canberra last weekend. Prior to the summit the Climate Action Centre prepared a climate action reader, Talk Climate, for the Summit. In this election year with the stakes higher than ever, it is a particularly thought provoking read. Included in the reader is a piece penned by Damien Lawson from the Climate Action Centre and Taegen Edwards from Yarra Climate Action Now dealing with the upcoming campaign currently to be driven by a coalition of Victorian climate action and environmental groups to replace Hazelwood power station with a mix of less polluting or non polluting electricity generating capacity.

Hazelwood is of course Victoria’s oldest, least efficient, largest and dirtiest, brown coal fired, power generating facility. Hazelwood was due to be closed in 2005. Unfortunately, and against the advice of a raft of environmental groups, the State Government decided to extend the operating license of this obsolete facility until 2031. Alone it is responsible for 15% of Victorian annual green house gas pollution and 3% of the Australian total.

The summit reaffirmed the climate movement’s opposition to the government’s trading scheme and set out key policy goals for clean renewable energy, green jobs and the need for an immediate carbon levy. The coal industry was made a key target. Among the agreed goals of the summit was the replacement of Hazelwood, with clean energy by 2012.

As Yarra Climate Action Now is one of the groups supporting this campaign you can expect to hear much more about this as the year passes. Watch this space.